Ghana, like many other countries, undergoes annual evaluations by prominent international credit rating agencies. These assessments provide valuable insights into the country’s economic stability and creditworthiness. In this edition of the LIMA Digest, we explore Ghana’s current credit rating from leading agencies and its implications for the country’s financial landscape.

What are Credit Ratings?

Credit ratings are assessments or evaluations of the creditworthiness of individuals, companies, governments, or other entities. These ratings are used by investors, lenders, and other financial institutions to make informed decisions about lending money, investing in bonds or securities, or conducting business transactions. Credit ratings are typically expressed as letter grades, with each grade indicating a level of credit risk associated with the entity being rated. ‘AAA’ is considered the best credit rating for any country or institution whilst ‘DDD’ is seen to be the worst rating any country or institution can receive. The main categories for credit ratings often include:

Investment Grade Ratings

AAA, AA, A, and BBB: These represent low to moderate credit risk and are considered investment-grade ratings. Countries with these ratings are more likely to meet their financial obligations.

Speculative or Non-Investment Grade Ratings

BB, B, CCC, CC: These represent higher credit risk and are considered speculative or non-investment grade. Countries with these ratings have a higher chance of defaulting on their financial obligations.

Default or High-Risk Ratings

C and D, SD: These indicate a high likelihood of default. Countries with these ratings may already be in default or at imminent risk of default.

Credit Rating Agencies

Credit rating agencies are independent organisations that analyze the financial health of countries and their ability to meet their financial obligations. Ghana’s creditworthiness is evaluated by several prominent credit rating agencies, including Moody’s Investors Service, Standard & Poor’s (S&P), and Fitch Ratings. These agencies assess various factors, such as economic performance, political stability, fiscal management, and external vulnerabilities, to determine the country’s creditworthiness.

Ghana’s Credit Ratings.

The table below shows the credit ratings of Ghana over a period by the major credit rating agencies.

Year Grade Credit Rating Agency
2015 B3 Moody’s
2016 B3 Moody’s
2020 B3 Moody’s
2019 B Fitch
2021 B Fitch
2023 CCC Fitch
2017 B- S&P
2018 B S&P
2022 SD S&P

From the table above, it is evident that Ghana’s creditworthiness has gotten poorer over the years. The high risk of defaulting on its obligations will discourage investors from showing interest in the country.


Ghana’s credit ratings have a considerable impact on its ability to access international capital markets and secure financing for essential projects and government operations. A lower credit rating can result in higher borrowing costs, reducing the government’s capacity to invest in infrastructure and public services.

It’s important to note that credit ratings are subject to change over time. The Ghana government’s commitment to prudent fiscal management, debt reduction, and economic diversification will play a crucial role in influencing these ratings positively in the future.


Ghana’s credit rating from major agencies reflects its economic challenges and vulnerabilities. As Ghana continues its journey toward economic development, maintaining fiscal discipline and attracting foreign investment will be essential for improving its creditworthiness and ensuring a stable financial future.

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